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Article 436 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure

After making the findings provided for in Article 406, the President shall order the witnesses to retire to the room intended for them. They may leave only to give evidence. The President shall, if necessary, take all appropriate measures to prevent the witnesses from conferring with each other before giving their evidence.

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Article 437 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure

Any person summoned to be heard as a witness is required to appear, to take an oath and to give evidence subject to the provisions of Articles 226-13 and 226-14 of the Penal Code. Any journalist heard as a witness on information gathered in the course of his or her work is free not to reveal its origin.

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Article 439 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure

If the witness does not appear, and if he has not put forward a reason for excuse recognised as valid and legitimate, the court may, on the application of the public prosecutor or even of its own motion, order that the witness be immediately brought before it by the public force to be heard, or refer the case to a future hearing.

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Article 440 of the French Code of Criminal Procedure

A witness who has been fined or ordered to pay costs for non-appearance may, at the latest within five days of service of this decision made on his person or at his domicile file an objection. The right of appeal is open to him only in respect of the judgment given on this objection. .

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